Selma, on the banks of the Alabama River about an hour’s drive west of Montgomery, was the site of one of the movement’s watershed moments. Here on the Edmund Pettus Bridge, on March 7, 1965, some 500 demonstrators marching to the state capital in Montgomery were beaten with clubs by state troopers and the sheriff’s posse. Television news footage sparked rioting in dozens of U.S. cities and motivated others to join the cause. Two weeks later, thousands of supporters returned to the scene for the triumphant 54-mile, five-day trek from Selma to Montgomery. Later that year, President Lyndon Johnson signed the 1965 Voting Rights Act, outlawing the literacy tests and poll taxes that denied some blacks the vote.
A single downtown intersection in Birmingham, Alabama’s largest city, is home to the city’s most important civil rights sites. The Birmingham Civil Rights Institute features emotionally charged displays, exhibits and interactive media stations, relating to the human struggle—in the South and internationally—for freedom. Across the street, Sixteenth Street Baptist Church provides a chilling look back at the 1963 Ku Klux Klan bombing that killed four girls preparing for a Sunday School programme. Visitors may tour the sanctuary, watch a documentary film about the event and walk through the basement of the fellowship hall that serves as a memorial. Across the street lies Kelly Ingram Park, which was a protest assembly point and the scene of vicious attacks during the first week of May 1963, when police unleashed guard dogs and water hoses on men, women and even children who were protesting segregation. Statues, plaques and an audio tour (available at the Civil Rights Institute) honour the demonstrators’ bravery.